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This is a high-current step-down regulators (also named "buck") that generates 5 V output from input voltages up to 38 V. It use a switching regulators (also called DC-to-DC converters) and offers a typical efficiency of 80% to 95%.
The max output current depend on the input voltage and efficiency (see the Typical Efficiency and Output Current section below). The output current can be as high as 9 A.
The ENABLE pin can be used to put the board in a low-power state that reduces the quiescent current to approximately 10 µA to 20 µA per volt on VIN.
The power good pin (PG) can be used to monitor the state of the main power. The regulator use this pin to signal when it cannot maintain the output voltage.
The output voltage can also be lowered by placing an external resistor between VOUT and FB.
This regulator has built-in reverse-voltage protection, thermal shutdown (activated at 160°C), short-circuit protection, and under-voltage lockout (the regulator to turn off when input voltage < 4.2 V).
The extra feature "soft-start" reduces inrush current at startup.
This buck regulator has six connections: VIN, GND (ground), VOUT (output voltage), FB (feedback), ENABLE and PG (power good).
The set voltage can optionally be decreased by adding an external resistor between the FB and the neighboring VOUT pin. The equations below show how the output voltage relates to the value of an external resistor, R:
In this example, to get 3.3v as output voltage, you should place a 23.7 kΩ resistor between FB and VOUT.
The minimum VOUT for this regulator is 0.8 V.
Note: the small VOUT pin next to FB is not intended to source much current; its is a convenient spot for connecting a voltage-adjustment resistor.
The voltage regulator efficiency is defined as (Power out)/(Power in). It is an important measure of the performance, especially when battery life or heat are concerns.
The graph below whos the switching regulators efficiency. The efficiency of 80% to 95% for most combinations of input voltage, and load. A lower efficiency imply a high power dissipation (then dissipate more heat).
The maximum output current of the board depends of several factors:
The graph below shows the maximum continuous output current this regulator can deliver with no external heat sinking or added air flow.
During normal operation, this product can get hot enough to burn you. Take care when handling this product or other components connected to it.
The dropout voltage of a step-down regulator is the minimum amount by which the input voltage must exceed the regulator’s target output voltage in order to ensure the target output can be achieved.
Ex: if a 5 V regulator has a 1 V dropout voltage, the input must be at least 6 V to ensure the output is the full 5 V.
The following graph shows the dropout voltage for the regulator as a function of the output current:
The regulator operates at a switching frequency of 470 kHz. The frequency can drops when encountering a light load in order to improve efficiency.
A lower switching frequency could make harder to filter out noise on the output (noise caused by switching). Frequency dropping also causes small variations in the output voltage like shown in the graph below.